Vaudeville Wars

VAUDEVILLE WARS

How the Keith-Albee and Orpheum Circuits Controlled the Big Time and Its Performers
written by Arthur Frank Wertheim, published by Palgrave Macmillan

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Bibliography



Listed here are bibliographical references for Vaudeville Wars including Books, Articles, Chapters in Anthologies, and Websites, Dissertations and Master's Theses.

Books

Ahlin, John Howard. Maine Rubicon: Downeast Settlers during the America Revolution. Calais, ME: Calais Advertiser Press, 1966.

Allen, Fred. Much Ado About Me. Boston: Little, Brown, 1956.

Allen, Robert C. Horrible Prettiness: Burlesque and American Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

---------------. Vaudeville and Film 1895--1915: A Study in Media Interaction. New York: Arno Press, 1980.

Auster, Albert. Actresses and Suffragists, Women in the American Theatre, 1880-1920. New York: Praeger, 1984.

Balio, Tino, ed. The American Film Industry. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.

Baral, Robert. Revue: The Great Broadway Period. New York and London: Fleet Press, 1962.

Barker, Felix. The House That Stoll Built. London: Frederick Muller, 1957.

Barnum, P. T. Struggles and Triumphs or, Forty Years' Recollections. 1869. Reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1970.

Barrymore, Ethel. Memories: An Autobiography. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1955.

Barth, Gunther. City People: The Rise of Modern City Culture in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Beardsley, Charles. Hollywood's Master Showman: The Legendary Sid Grauman. New York and London: Cornwall Books, 1983.

Benny, Jack and Joan Benny. Sunday Nights at Seven: The Jack Benny Story. New York: Warner Books, 1990.

Bentley, Christopher. The Great Wave: Gilded Age Misfits, Japanese Eccentrics and the Opening of Japan. New York: Random House, 2003.

Berger, Robert, Anne Conser, and Stephen M. Silverman. The Last Remaining Seats: Movie Palaces of Tinseltown. Los Angeles: Balcony Press, 1997.

Berle, Milton. Milton Berle: An Autobiography. With Haskel Frankel. New York: Delacorte Press, 1974.

Bernheim, Alfred L. The Business of the Theatre. New York: Actors' Equity Association, 1932.

Berson, Misha. The San Francisco Stage: From Golden Spike to Great Earthquake, 1869-1906. San Francisco: San Francisco Performing Arts Library and Museum Series, no. 4, February 1992.

Besas, Peter. Inside "Variety": The Story of the Bible of Show Business (1905-1987). Madrid and New York: Ars Milenni, 2000.

Bianco, Anthony. Ghosts of 42nd Street: A History of America's Most Infamous Block. New York: William Morrow, 2004.

Bilby, Kenneth. The General: David Sarnoff and the Rise of the Communications Industry. New York: Harper and Row, 1986.

Birkmire, John H. The Planning and Construction of American Theatres. New York and London: John Wiley and Sons, 1906.

Blesh, Rudi. Keaton. New York: Macmillan Co., 1966.

Blumenthal, George. My Sixty Years in Show Business. With Arthur H. Menkin. New York: Olympia Publishing, 1936.

Bogdan, Robert. Freak Show: Presenting Human Oddities for Amusement and Profit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.

Bowser, Eileen. The Transformation of Cinema 1907-1915. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1990.

Brett, Roger. Temples of Illusion: The Golden Age of Theaters in an American City. Providence, RI: Brett Theatrical, 1976.

Brown, Joe E. As told to Ralph Hancock. Laughter Is a Wonderful Thing. New York: Barnes, 1956.

Brown, T. Allston. A History of the New York Stage: From the First Performance in 1732 to 1901. 3 vols. New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1903.

Browne, George Waldo. History of Hillsborough, New Hampshire, 1735-1921. 2 vols. Manchester, NH: John B. Clarke, 1922.

Buhle, Paul. Popular Culture in America. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987.

Burgess, Gelett. Introduction by James D. Hart. Bayside Bohemia: Find De Siecle San Francisco & Its Little Magazines. San Francisco: Book Club of California, 1954.

--------------. Gelett Burgess Behind the Scenes: Glimpses of Fin de SiPcle San Francisco. With commentaries by Joseph M. Backus. San Francisco: Book Club of San Francisco, 1968.

Burns, George. I Love Her, That's Why! New York: Simon and Schuster, 1955.

Busby, Roy. British Music Hall: An Illustrated Who's Who From 1850 to the Present Day. London and Salem, NH: Paul Elek, 1976.

Butsch, Richard. The Making of American Audiences: From Stage to Television, 1750-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

---------------, ed. For Fun and Profit: The Transformation of Leisure into Consumption. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.

Caffin, Caroline. Vaudeville. New York: M. Kennerley, 1914.

Cantor, Eddie. As I Remember Them. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1963.

-------------. My Life Is in Your Hands. New York: Blue Ribbon Books, 1932.

--------------. Take My Life. With Jane Kesner Ardmore. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1957.

Chach, Maryann, Reagan Fletcher, Mark E. Swartz. The Shuberts Present: 100 Years of American Theater. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2001.

Chandler, Alfred D., Jr. The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1977.

Chaplin, Charles. My Autobiography. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964.

Charters, Ann. Nobody: The Story of Bert Williams. London: Macmillan Co., 1970.

Cheshire, D. F. Music Hall in Britain. Newton Abbot, England: David & Charles, 1974.

Cohan, George M. Twenty Years on Broadway and the Years it Took to Get There: The True Story of a Trouper's Life from the Cradle to the "Closed Shop." New York and London: Harper and Brothers, 1924.

Constitution and By-laws of White Rats Actors' Union of America, Incorporated, 1912. Pamphlets in American History, microfiche no. L2859.

Crafton, Donald. Emile Cohl, Caricature and Film. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990.

---------------. The Talkies: American Cinema's Transition to Sound, 1926-1931. Vol. 4, History of the American Cinema, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Cressy, Will M. Continuous Vaudeville. Boston: Richard G. Badger, 1914.

Crowther, Bosley. The Lion's Share: The Story of an Entertainment Empire. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1957.

Curtis, James. W. C. Fields: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003.

Davis, Michael M. Exploitation of Pleasure. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1911.

DeMille, Cecil B. Autobiography of Cecil B. DeMille. Edited by Donald Hayne. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1959.

Dennett, Andrea Stulman. Weird and Wonderful: The Dime Museum in America. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

DiMeglio, John E. Vaudeville U.S.A. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1973.

Dizikes, John. Opera in America: A Cultural History. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1993.

Douglas, Ann. Terrible Honesty: Mongrel Manhattan in the 1920s. New York: Noonday Press, 1996.

Duis, Perry R. The Saloon: Public Drinking in Chicago and Boston, 1880-1920. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1983.

Elliott, Eugene Clinton. A History of Variety-Vaudeville in Seattle: From the Beginning to 1914. No. 1, University of Washington Publications in Drama. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1944.

Epstein, Lawrence J. The Haunted Smile: The Story of Jewish Comedians in America. New York: Public Affairs, 2001.

Erdman, Andrew L. Blue Vaudeville: Sex, Morals and the Mass Marketing of Amusement, 1895-1915. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2004.

Erdoes, Richard. Saloons of the Old West. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979.

Erenberg, Lewis A. "Steppin' Out": New York Nightlife and the Transformation of American Culture, 1890-1930. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981.

Ernst, Alice Hensen. Trouping in the Oregon Country, A History of the Frontier Theatre. Portland: Oregon Historical Society, 1961.

Estavan, Lawrence. The Italian Theatre in San Francisco: Being a History of the Italian-Language Operatic, Dramatic, and Comedic Productions Presented in the San Francisco Bay Area Through the Depression Era, With Reminiscences of the Leading Players and Impresarios of the Times. Edited by Mary A. Burgess. San Bernadino, CA: Borgo Press, 1991.

Faulkner, Harold U. Politics, Reform and Expansion, 1890-1900. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1959; Harper Torchbooks, 1963.

Federal Trade Commission Decisions: Findings and Orders of the Federal Trade Commission, July 1, 1919, to June 30, 1920, vol II. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1920.

Fields, Armond. Eddie Foy: A Biography of the Early Popular Stage Comedian. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1999.

-------------. Fred Stone: Circus Performer and Musical Comedy Star. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2002.

-------------. Sophie Tucker: First Lady of Show Business. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2003.

------------- and L. Marc Fields. From the Bowery to Broadway: Lew Fields and the Roots of American Popular Theater. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Fields, W. C. W. C. Fields by Himself: His Intended Autobiography. Commentary by Ronald J. Fields. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973.

Film Daily Year Book. New York: Film Daily, 1928-31.

Fisher, James. Al Jolson: A Bio-Bibliography. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Foster, William Trufant Foster. Vaudeville and Motion Picture Shows: A Study of Theaters in Portland, Oregon. Portland: Reed College, 1914.

Frick, John W. New York's First Theatrical Center: The Rialto at Union Square. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1985.

-------------, and Carlton Gray, eds. Directory of Historic American Theatres. New York and Westport, CT.: Greenwood Press, 1987.

Friedland, Michael. Jolson. New York: Stein and Day, 1972.

Funk, Wilfred. Word Origins: An Exploration and History of Words and Language. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1950. Reprint, New York: Wings Books, 1998.

Gabler, Neal. An Empire of Their Own: How the Jews Invented Hollywood. New York: Anchor Books, 1989.

------------. Winchell: Gossip, Power and the Culture of Celebrity. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.

Gagey, Edmond M. The San Francisco Stage: A History. New York: Columbia University Press, 1950.

Galbraith, John Kenneth. The Great Crash, 1929. 1955. Reprint, Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Mariner Books, 1997.

George-Graves, Nadine. The Royalty of Negro Vaudeville: The Whitman Sisters and the Negotiation of Race, Gender and Class in African American Theatre, 1900-1940. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.

Gerould, Samuel Lankton. A Brief History of the Congregational Church in Goffstown, N.H.: Being Part of a Sermon Preached by Samuel L. Gerould, Pastor, July 9, 1876. Bristol, NH: R. W. Musgrove, 1881.

------------. Genealogy of the Family of Gamaliel Gerould. Bristol, NH: Enterprise Power Press, 1885.

Giesler, Jerry. The Jerry Giesler Story. As told to Pete Martin. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960.

Gilbert, Douglas. American Vaudeville: Its Life and Times. New York: Whittlesly House, 1940. Reprint, New York: Dover, 1963.

Gilkeson, John S., Jr. Middle-class Providence, 1820-1940. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Glabb, Charles Nelson and A. Theodore Brown. A History of Urban America. New York: Macmillan, 1967.

Glazer, Irvin R. Philadelphia Theatres, A-Z: A Comprehensive, Descriptive Record of 813 Theatres Constructed Since 1724. Westport, CT, and New York: Greenwood Press, 1986.

---------------. Philadelphia Theaters: A Pictorial Architectural History. Philadelphia and New York: The Athenaeum of Philadelphia and Dover Publications, 1994.

Glenn, Susan A. Female Spectacle: The Theatrical Roots of Modern Feminism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000.

Golden, George Fuller. My Lady Vaudeville and Her White Rats. New York: Broadway Publishing, 1909.

Goldman, Herbert G. Jolson: The Legend Comes to Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Gomery, Douglas. Shared Pleasures: A History of Movie Presentation in the United States. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992.

Goodwin, Doris Kearns. The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987.

Gordon, Max. Max Gordon Presents. New York: Bernard Geiss Associates, 1963.

Grau, Robert. Forty Years Observation of Music and the Drama. New York and Baltimore: Broadway Publishing Co., 1909.

-----------. The Business Man in the Amusement World: A Volume of Progress in the Field of the Theatre. New York: Broadway Publishing Co., 1910.

-----------. The Stage in the Twentieth Century. 1912. Reprint, New York: Benjamin Blom, 1969.

Green, Abel, and Joe Laurie, Jr. Show Biz: From Vaude to Video. New York: Henry Holt, 1951.

Griffin, Ernest Freeland, ed. Westchester County and Its People: A Record. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1946.

Grimsted, David. Melodrama Unveiled: American Theatre and Culture, 1800-1850. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1968.

Gurock, Jeffrey S. When Harlem Was Jewish: 1870--1930. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979.

Gussow, Mel. Edward Albee: A Singular Journey. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999.

Hall, Ben M. The Best Remaining Seats: The Story of the Golden Age of the Movie Palace. New York: Bramhall House, 1961.

Handlin, Oscar. Boston's Immigrants: A Study in Acculturation. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1979.

Harding, Alfred. The Revolt of the Actors. New York: William Morrow, 1929.

Harlow, Alfin F. Old Bowery Days: Chronicles of a Famous Street. New York and London: D. Appleton, 1931.

Havoc, June. Early Havoc. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1959.

Hearings Before the Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, Stock Exchange Practices, 72nd Congress, part 3, June 1932, 815-61.

Henderson, Mary C. The City and the Theatre: New York Playhouses from Bowling Green to Times Square. Clifton, NJ: James T. White and Co., 1973.

Herrick, Howard, ed. Who's Who in Vaudeville 1911. New York: Dupree and Pope, 1911.

Higham, Charles. Cecil B. DeMille. New York: Charles Scribner's 1973.

---------------. Rose: The Life and Times of Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy. New York: Pocket Books, 1995.

Hirsch, Foster. The Boys from Syracuse: The Shuberts' Theatrical Empire. 1998. Reprint, New York: Cooper Square Press, 2000.

Houdini, Harry. A Magician Among the Spirits. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1924.

Huettig, Mae D. Economic Control of the Motion Picture Industry. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1944.

Hurd, D. Hamilton. History of Hillsborough County, New Hampshire. Philadelphia: J. W. Lewis, 1885.

Isman, Felix. Weber and Fields: Their Tribulations, Triumphs and Their Associates. New York: Boni and Liveright, 1924.

Issel, William and Robert W. Cherny, San Francisco, 1865-1932: Politics, Power, and Urban Development. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.

Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. Encyclopedia of New York City. New Haven and New York: Yale University Press and the New-York Historical Society, 1995.

James, Edward T., ed. Notable American Women, 1607-1950. 3 vols. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971.

Janis, Elsie. So Far, So Good!: An Autobiography. London: John Long, Limited, 1933.

Jenkins, Henry. What Made Pistachio Nuts?: Early Sound Film and the Vaudeville Aesthetic. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992.

Jennings, John J. Theatrical and Circus Life; or, Secrets of the Stage, Greenroom and Sawdust Arena. San Francisco, CA: Bancroft, 1882.

Jessel, George. So Help Me: The Autobiography of George Jessel. New York: Random House, 1943.

--------------. The World I Lived In. With John Austin. Chicago: Henry Regnery Co., 1975.

Jewell, Richard B. The RKO Story. With Vernon Harbin. New York: Arlington House, 1982.

Johnson, Stephen Burge. The Roof Gardens of Broadway Theatres, 1883-1942. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1985.

Kattwinkel, Susan. Tony Pastor Presents: Afterpieces from the Vaudeville Stage. Westport: CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.

Keaton, Buster. My Wonderful World of Slapstick. With Charles Samuels. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1960.

Kellock, Harold. Houdini: His Life Story. London: William Heinemann, 1928.

Kelly, Walter C. Of Me I Sing: An Informal Autobiography. New

Kennedy, Joseph P., ed. The Story of the Films, As Told by Leaders of the Industry to the Students of the Graduate School of Business Administration. Chicago: A. W. Shaw, 1927.

Kessler, Ronald. The Sins of the Father: Joseph P. Kennedy and the Dynasty He Founded. New York: Warner Books, 1996.

Kibler, M. Alison. Rank Ladies: Gender and Cultural Hierarchy in American Vaudeville. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press paperback, 1999.

King, Donald C. The Theatres of Boston: A Stage and Screen History. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2005.

King, Moses, ed. King's Handbook of New York City, 1893. 2 vols. Boston, 1893. Reprint, 2d enl. ed. New York, Benjamin Blom, 1972.

Knapp, Bettina and Myra Chipman. That Was Yvette: The Biography of Yvette Guilbert, the Great Diseuse. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964.

Kosoff, David E. Joseph P. Kennedy: A Life and Times. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1974.

Koszarski, Richard. An Evening's Entertainment: The Age of the Silent Feature Picture, 1915-1928. New York: Scribner, 1990.

LaDelle, Frederic. How to Enter Vaudeville: A Complete Illustrated Course of Instruction. Jackson, MI: Frederic LaDelle Co., 1913; http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/bob hope/vaude/html (accessed November 6, 2003).

Lasky, Betty. RKO: The Biggest Little Major of Them All. Santa Monica, CA: Roundtable Publishing, 1989.

Lasky, Jesse L. I Blow My Own Horn. With Don Weldon. London: Victor Gollancz, 1957.

Lauder, Sir Harry. Between You and Me. New York: James A. McCann Co., 1919.

-----------------. Roamin' in the Gloamin'. Philadelphia and London: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1928.

Laurie, Bruce. Artisans Into Workers: Labor in Nineteenth- Century America. New York: Hill and Wang, 1989.

Laurie, Joe, Jr. Vaudeville: From Honky-tonks to the Palace. New York: Henry Holt, 1953.

Leavitt, Michael Bennett. Fifty Years in Theatrical Management. New York: Broadway Publishing, 1912.

Lee, Gypsy Rose. Gypsy: A Memoir. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1957.

Lewis, Oscar. Bay Window Bohemia: An Account of the Brilliant Artistic World of Gaslit San Francisco. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1956.

Lewis, Robert M., ed. From Traveling Show to Vaudeville: Theatrical Spectacle in America, 1830-1910. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2003.

Lloyd, Herbert. Vaudeville Trails Thru the West: "By One Who Knows." San Francisco: San Francisco Publishing and Advertising, 1919.

Lockwood, Charles. Manhattan Moves Uptown: An Illustrated History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1976.

Louvish, Simon. Man on the Flying Trapeze. New York: W. W. Norton, 1997.

Lucia, Ellis. Klondike Kate: The Life and Legend of Kitty Rockwell, the Queen of the Yukon. New York: Hastings House, 1962.

Lyons, Eugene. David Sarnoff. New York: Harper and Row, 1966.

MacMinn, George R. The Theater of the Golden Era in California. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Printers, 1941.

Maitland, Sarah. Vesta Tilley. London: Virago Press, 1986.

Malvern, Gladys. Valiant Minstrel, The Story of Sir Harry Lauder. New York: Julian Messner, 1943.

Mander, Raymond, and Joe Mitchenson. British Music Halls. Rev. ed. London: Gentry Books, 1974.

Marks, Edward B. They All Sang: From Tony Pastor to Rudy Vallee. As told to Abbott J. Liebling. 3rd ed. New York: Viking Press, 1935.

Marston, William Moulton, and John Henry Feller. F. F. Proctor: Vaudeville Pioneer. New York: Richard R. Smith, 1943.

Marx, Groucho. Groucho and Me. New York: Bernard Geiss, 1959.

Marx, Harpo. Harpo Speaks! With Rowland Barber. New York: Bernard Geiss, 1961.

McArthur, Benjamin. Actors and American Culture, 1880--1920. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1984.

McCabe, James Dabney [Edwin Winslow Martin]. The Secrets of the Great City: A Work Descriptive of the Virtues and the Vices, the Mysteries, Miseries and Crimes of New York City. Philadelphia: Jones Brothers, 1868.

McCabe, John. George M. Cohan: The Man Who Owned Broadway. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1973.

McConachie, Bruce A. Melodramatic Formations: American Theatre and Society, 1820-1870. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1992.

McKelvey, Bruce. Rochester: The Quest for Quality, 1890-1925. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1956.

McLean, Albert F. Jr. American Vaudeville as Ritual. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1965.

McNamara, Brooks. The Shuberts of Broadway: A History Drawn from the Collections of the Shubert Archive. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Middleton, George. Circus Memoirs: Reminiscences of George Middleton as Told to and Written by His Wife. Los Angeles: George Rice & Sons, 1913.

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Mohl, Raymond A. The New City: Urban America in the Industrial Age, 1860-1920. Arlington Heights, IL: Harlan Davidson, 1985.

Morehouse, Ward. George M. Cohan: Prince of the American Theater. New York and Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1943.

Morgan, Murray. Skid Road: An Informal Portrait of Seattle. New York: Viking Press, 1951.

Morris, Lloyd. Incredible New York: High Life and Low Life of the Last Hundred Years. New York: Random House, 1951.

Musser, Charles. Before the Nickelodeon: Edwin S. Porter and the Edison Manufacturing Company. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1991.

---------------. The Emergence of Cinema: The American Screen to 1907. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1990.

Nasaw, David. Going Out: The Rise and Fall of Public Amusements. New York: Basic Books, 1993.

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Nugent, J. C. It's a Great Life. New York: Dial Press, 1940.

Nye, Russell. The Unembarrassed Muse: The Popular Arts in America. New York: Dial Press, 1971.

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Oberfirst, Robert. Al Jolson: You Ain't Heard Nothing Yet. San Diego, CA.: A. S. Barnes, 1980.

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Orpheum Circuit: Third of a Century, 1887-1922. Ed. and comp., Mort H. Singer. San Francisco, 1922. Copy, THS.

Page, Brett. Writing for Vaudeville. Springfield, MA: Home Correspondence School, 1915.

Peiss, Kathy. Cheap Amusements. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986.

Poggi, Jack. Theater in America: The Impact of Economic Forces, 1870-1967. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1968.

Renton, Edward. The Vaudeville Theatre: Building, Operation, Management. New York: Gotham Press, 1918.

Report of the Committee on Banking and Currency, Stock Exchange Practices. 72nd and 73rd Congress, 1934 (Fletcher Report), 47.

Robinson, Alice M., Vera Mowry Roberts, and Milly S. Barranger. Notable Women in the American Theatre. Westport, CT, and New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.

Robinson, David. Buster Keaton. London: Secker and Warburg with the British Film Institute, 1969.

---------------. From Peep Show to Palace: The Birth of American Film. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.

Robinson, Gil. Old Wagon Show Days. Cincinnati: Brockwell, 1925.

Rocks, David T. W. C. Fields---An Annotated Guide, Chronology, Bibliographies, Discography, Filmographies, Press Books, Cigarette Cards, Film Clips and Impersonators. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1993.

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Russell, Fred. The History of the Grand Order of Water Rats. London: Grand Order of Water Rats, 1947.

S. D., Trav. No Applause---Just Throw Money: The Book That Made Vaudeville Famous. New York: Faber and Faber, 2005.

S. Z. Poli's Theatrical Enterprises. Booklet, ca. 1908. Reprint, Notre Dame, IN: Theatre Historical Society, 1978.

Saloutos, Theodore. The Greeks in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1964.

Sampson, Henry T. Blacks in Blackface: A Source Book on Early Black Musical Shows. Metuchen, NJ and London: Scarecrow Press, 1980.

----------------. The Ghost Walks: A Chronological History of Blacks in Show Business, 1865--1910. Metuchen, NJ and London: Scarecrow Press, 1988.

Samuels, Charles, and Louise Samuels. Once Upon a Stage: The Merry World of Vaudeville. New York: Dodd Mead, 1974.

Sante, Luc. Low Life: Lures and Snares of Old New York. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1991.

Saxon, A. H. P. T. Barnum: The Legend and the Man. New York:Columbia University Press, 1989.

Seldes, Gilbert. The 7 Lively Arts. New York: Sagamore Press, 1957.

Sheean, Vincent. Oscar Hammerstein I: The Life and Exploits of an Impresario. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1956.

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Simon, Louis M. A History of The Actors' Fund of America. New York: Theatre Arts Books, 1972.

Sinclair, Upton. Upton Sinclair Presents William Fox. Los Angeles: privately printed, 1933.

Slide, Anthony. The Vaudevillians: A Dictionary of Vaudeville Performers. Westport, CT: Arlington House, 1981.

--------------, ed. Selected Vaudeville Criticism. Metuchen, NJ and London: Scarecrow Press, 1988.

Slout, William L. Theatre in a Tent. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1972.

Slout, William L., ed. Broadway Below the Sidewalk: Concert Saloons of Old New York. San Bernadino, CA: Borgo Press, 1994.

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Smith, Bill. The Vaudevillians. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1976.

Smith, Matthew Hale. Sunshine and Shadow in New York. Hartford, CT: J. B. Burr, 1869.

Smith, Richard Norton. Patriarch: George Washington and the New American Nation. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1993.

Snyder, Robert W. The Voice of the City: Vaudeville and Popular Culture in New York. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Sobel, Bernard. A Pictorial History of Vaudeville. New York: Citadel Press, 1961.

Souvenir and Opening Program of the Orpheum Circuit's New Orpheum Theatre. Sioux City, IA: December 19, 1927.

Spitzer, Marian. The Palace. New York: Atheneum, 1969.

Stagg, Jerry. The Brothers Shubert. New York: Random House, 1968.

Staples, Shirley. Male-Female Comedy Teams in American Vaudeville, 1865-1932. Ann Arbor, MI.: UMI Research Press, 1984.

Starr, Kevin. Inventing the Dream: California Through the Progressive Era. 1985. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press paperback, 1986.

Stein, Charles W., ed. American Vaudeville As Seen by Its Contemporaries. New York: Da Capo Press, 1984.

Stern, Robert A. M., Gregory Gilmartin, and John Montague Massengale. New York 1900: Metropolitan Architecture and Urbanism, 1890--1915. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1983.

Stoddart, Dayton. Lord Broadway: Variety's Sime. New York: Wilfred Funk, 1941.

Stone, Fred. Rolling Stone. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1945.

Sudworth, Gwynedd. The Great Little Tilley: Vesta Tilley and Her Times. Luton, England: Courtney Publications, 1984.

Swanson, Gloria. Swanson on Swanson. New York: Random House, 1980.

Suster, Albert. Actresses and Suffragists: Women in the American Theater, 1890-1920. New York: Praeger, 1984.

Taylor, William R, ed. Inventing Times Square: Commerce and Culture at the Crossroads of the World. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1991.

Thompson, Kristin. Exporting Entertainment: America in the World Film Market. London: BFI Publishers, 1985.

Toll, Robert C. Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth- Century America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.

--------------. The Entertainment Machine: American Show Business in the Twentieth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

--------------. On With the Show!: The First Century of Show Business in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Traub, James. The Devil's Playground: A Century of Pleasure and Profit. New York: Random House, 2004.

Tucker, Sophie. With Dorothy Giles. Some of These Days: The Autobiography of Sophie Tucker. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran, 1945.

Van Hoogstraten, Nicholas. Lost Broadway Theatres. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Architectural Press, 1991.

Vaudeville Managers' Protective Association, 1912 Yearbook. Chicago: General Publicity Service, 1912.

Vaudeville Year Book, 1913. Chicago: Western Vaudeville Managers' Association, 1913.

Walker, Franklin. Frank Norris: A Biography. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran, 1932.

Waters, Ethel with Charles Samuels. His Eye Is on the Sparrow. New York: Doubleday, 1951.

Wells, Evelyn. Champagne Days of San Francisco. 1939. Reprint, New York and London: D. Appleton-Century, 1941.

Wertheim, Arthur Frank. Radio Comedy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

West, Mae. Goodness Has Nothing to Do with It. New York: Belvedere Publishers, 1959.

Whalen, Richard J. The Founding Father: The Story of Joseph P. Kennedy. New York: New American Library, 1964.

Willard, George O. History of the Providence Stage, 1762-1891. Providence: Rhode Island News Company, 1891.

Williams, Beryl and Samuel Epstein, The Great Houdini: Magician Extraordinary. New York: Julian Messner, 1950.

Wilmeth, Don B. The Language of American Popular Entertainment: A Glossary of Argot, Slang, and Terminolgy. Wesport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981.

--------------. Variety Entertainment and Outdoor Amusements: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.

Wilmut, Roger. Kindly Leave the Stage!: The Story of Variety, 1919--1960. London: Methuen, 1989.

Winchester, Simon. A Crack in the Edge of the World: America and the Great California Earthquake of 1906. New York: HarperCollins, 2005.

Wittke, Carl. We Who Built America: The Saga of the Immigrant. Rev. ed. Cleveland, OH: The Press of Western Reserve University, 1964.

Yagoda, Ben. Will Rogers: A Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.

Zellers, Parker. Tony Pastor: Dean of the Vaudeville Stage. Ypsilanti, MI: Eastern Michigan University Press, 1971.

Zierold, Norman. The Moguls (New York: Coward-McCann, 1964).

Articles, Chapters in Anthologies, and Websites

Albee, E. F. "B. F. Keith---An Appreciation." B. F. Keith's Theatre News, May 22, 1922, 4-5, copy HC-LC.

Allen, Jeanne Thomas. "Copyright and Early Theater, Vaudeville, and Film Competition." In Film Before Griffith, edited by John L. Fell, 176-87. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Allen, Robert, C. "B.F. Keith and the Origins of American Vaudeville." Theatre Survey 21(November 1980):105-15.

----------------. "Contra the Chaser Theory." In Film Before Griffith, edited by John L. Fell, 105-15. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

----------------. "Motion Picture Exhibition in Manhattan 1906- 1912: Beyond the Nickelodeon." In Film Before Griffith, edited by John L. Fell, 162-75. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

----------------. "The Movies in Vaudeville: Historical Context of the Movies as Popular Entertainment." In The American Film Industry, edited by Tino Balio, 57-82. Rev.ed, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.

----------------. "Vitascope/Cinématographe: Initial Patterns of American Film Industrial Practice." In Film Before Griffith, edited by John L. Fell, 144-52. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Armstead-Johnson, Helen."Blacks in Vaudeville: Broadway and Beyond." In American Popular Entertainment: Papers and Proceedings of the Conference on the History of American Popular Entertainment, edited by Myron Matlaw. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1979.

"B. F. Keith's Memorial Theatre." Marquee 15(Spring 1983):1- 31.

Bernheim, Alfred. "The Facts of Vaudeville," Equity 8(September 1923):9-13, 32-35, 37; 8(October 1923):13-16, 35, 37; 8 (November 1923):33-35, 38-40; 8(December 1923):19-20, 34-36, 38-43, 45, 47; 9(January 1924):15-16, 40-43, 45, 47; 9 (February 1924):19-20, 39-43, 45-47; 9(March 1924):17-20, 37-39, 43.

Birkmire, William H. "The Planning and Construction of American Theatres, Gaiety Theatre." Architecture and Building 24 (March 7, 1896):113-16.

"Bob Hope and American Variety." Library of Congress Exhibition, http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/bobhope/vaude.html (accessed November 10, 2004).

Brenneman, Lyman. "A Look Backstage at the Hippodrome." Marquee 5(Spring 1973):8-9.

Breyer, Christopher. "Manhattan, 1928: A Composograph." Performing Arts Magazine (2001), 6.

"Broadway Initiative, Orpheum Theatre, 842 South Broadway." http://laconservancy.org/initiatives/orpheum.php4 (accessed September 16, 2004).

Butsch, Richard. "Bowery B'hoys and Matinee Ladies: The Re- gendering of Nineteenth-Century American Theater Audiences." American Quarterly 46(September 1994):374-405.

"Cases Argued and Determined in the Circuit Court of Appeals and District Courts of the United States and the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia." Federal Reporter, vol. 12 (St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1926):341-45.

"Cases Argued and Determined in the United States Supreme Court, 1926." Supreme Court Reporter, vol. 47 (St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1928):97.

Chavanne, Paul J. "The Boston Orpheum." Marquee 4(Fall 1972): 19-21.

"Colonial Theatre Sixty-Fifth Street Blvd." Architecture and Building 30(1890), n.p.

Copley, Frank B. "The Story of a Great Vaudeville Manager." American Magazine 94(December 1922):46-47, 152-55.

Crane, Warren Eugene. "Alexander Pantages." System: The Magazine of Business 37(March 1920):501-3.

Cronican, Frank. "Hip, Hip, Hippodrome!" Marquee 4(Fall 1972): 3-5.

Czitrom, Daniel. "Underworlds and Underdogs: Big Tim Sullivan and Metropolitan Politics in New York, 1889-1913." Journal of American History 78(September 1991):536-58.

Davis, Hartley. "The Business Side of Vaudeville." Everybody's Magazine, October 1907, 527-37.

--------------. "In Vaudeville." Everybody's Magazine, August 1905, 235.

Douglas, W. A. S. "The Passing of Vaudeville." American Mercury 12(October 1927):188-94.

Duryea, Bryan. "Will Cressy Tells About Vaudeville." Green Book (June 1915):13.

Eaton, Walter Prichard. "The Wizards of Vaudeville." McClure's Magazine, September 1923, 43--49.

Fanger, Iris. "Back in Business: The Past---and the Future---of the Opera House," July 16-22, 2004, http://bostonphoenix.com/boston/arts/theater/documents/03985606.
asp (accessed February 6, 2005).

Frick, John. "Stock Companies on Union Square." Marquee 19 (Fourth Quarter 1987):11-19.

-----------. "The Theatres of Fourteenth Street." Marquee 16 (Third Quarter 1984):3-9.

Gilmore, Mike. "San Francisco Vaudeville Theatres." Vaudeville Times 4(issue #3):2-6.

Gomery, Douglas. "The Coming of the Talkies: Invention, Innovation, and DIffusion." In The American Film Industry, edited by Tino Balio, 193-211. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1976.

Grau, Robert. "A Napoleon of the Vaudeville World." Theatre Magazine 116(October 1910):x, 117.

Gray, Barry. "The Good Old Days of the Dime Museum." Billboard, December 8, 1928, 98.

Gray, Christopher. "The Ghost Behind a Huge Sign." New York Times, January 29, 1989.

"H. B. Marinelli, Ltd. v. United Booking Offices of America." Federal Reporter 227 (December 1915-January 1916). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1916:165-71.

Haberly, Lloyd. "The American Museum from Baker to Barnum." New York Historical Society Quarterly 43(July 1959):273-87.

Hallett, Al H. "The Old `Barbary Coast'." Variety, December 26, 1919, 22.

Halsey, Stuart, and Co. "The Motion Picture Industry as a Basis for Bond Financing." In The American Film Industry, edited by Tino Balio, 171-91. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1976.

Havig, Alan. "The Commercial Amusement Audience in Early 20th-Century American Cities." Journal of American Culture 5(Spring 1982):1-19.

Helgesen, Terry. "B. Marcus Priteca: In Memoriam." Marquee 3 (Fall 1971):12.

---------------. "B. Marcus Priteca 1890-1971: The Last of the Giants." Marquee 4 (Spring 1972): 3--13.

"The History of the Orpheum Theatre." http://www.bestofbroadway- sf.com/orphist.html (accessed June 2, 2004).

Kattwinkel, Susan. "Tony Pastor's Vaudeville: Serving the New York Community." Library Chronicle of the University of Texas at Austin 25, no.3(1995):51-75.

Keith, B. F. "The Vogue of Vaudeville." National Magazine 9 (November 1898):146-53. In American Vaudeville as Seen by Its Contemporaries, edited by Charles W. Stein 15-20. New York: Da Capo Press, 1984.

"Keith's Palace Theater." Architecture and Building (May 1923): 110-11.

Kibler, Alison M. "The Keith/Albee Collection: The Vaudeville Industry, 1894-1935." Books at Iowa 56(April 1992). http://lib.uiowa.edu/spec- coll/MSC/ToMsc400/MsC356/kibler.htm (accessed April 26, 2002).

King, Donald C. "From Museum to Multi-Cinema: An Outline History of the Theatre in Boston." Marquee 6(Summer 1974):5-10, 15.

--------------. "Keith-Albee et al. . . ." Marquee 7 (Summer 1975):3-10.

--------------. "New York's Oldest Existing Theatre---The Union Square." Marquee 6(Spring 1974):18.

-------------. "Sylvester Z. Poli Story: From Wax to Riches." Marquee 11(Spring 1979):11-18.

Landry, Robert J. "Variety---Going on 75." Variety, weekly series, March 26, 1980--December 31, 1980.

Lansburgh, G. Albert. "Some Novel Features of a Strictly Fire- Proof Theater Building." Architect and Engineer of California, Pacific Coast States 17(June 1909):37-41.

Lazzara, Robert L. "Orpheum Theatre, San Francisco California." Marquee 15(Fall 1983):16-17.

Levin, Steven. "San Francisco Story: From the Fire to the Fair." Marquee 7(Winter 1975):3-9.

Lippman, Monroe. "The Effect of the Theatrical Syndicate on Theatrical Art in America." Quarterly Journal of Speech 26 (April 1940):275-82.

"Los Angeles Conservancy." http://www.laconservancy.org (accessed February 5, 2005).

"Los Angeles Theatres Orpheum." Theatre Historical Society Annual (no. 32, 2005).

Lufkin, George. "The Spokane Spectacle." Marquee 22 (Winter 1990): 3-16.

Marsh, John L. "Vaudefilm: Its Contribution to a Moviegoing America." Journal of American Culture 7(Fall 1984):77-94.

Matlaw, Myron. "Tony the Trouper: Pastor's Early Years." Theatre Annual 24(1968):70-74.

McLean, Albert F. "Genesis of Vaudeville: Two Letters from B. F. Keith." Theatre Survey 1(1960):82-95.

----------------. "U.S. Vaudeville and the Urban Comics." Theatre Quarterly 1(October--December 1971): 47-52.

McNamara, Brooks. "`A Congress of Wonders': The Rise and Fall of the Dime Museum." Emerson Society Quarterly 20(3rd quarter 1974):216-32.

"Michael B. Leavitt." San Francisco Theatre Research 2 (series 1):109-45.

Miller, Michael. "Proctor's Fifty-Eighth Street Theatre." Marquee 5(Summer 1973):7-15.

Morgan, J. H. "New York Hippodrome." Architects and Builders Magazine 37(August 1905):490-99.

Morrison, William. "Oscar Hammerstein I: The Man Who Invented Times Square." Marquee 15(Winter 1983):3-15.

-----------------. "Oscar Hammerstein I, Part II: Impresario in Exelsis." Marquee 16(Summer 1984):17-23.

Moy, James S. "Proctor's Pleasure Palace and Garden of Palms, 1895-1898." Nineteenth Century Theatre Research 8 (Spring 1980), 17-27.

Mudd, A. I. "History of Polite Vaudeville in Washington, D.C." Copy, NN-L-BRTC.

Musser, Charles. "Introducing Cinema to the American Public: The Vitascope in the United States, 1896-7." In Moviegoing in America: A Sourcebook in the History of Film Exhibition, edited by Gregory A.Waller, 13-26. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2002.

Norris, Frank. "Cosmopolitan San Francisco." Wave, December 24, 1897. Reprinted in Frank Norris of `The Wave': Stories & Sketches from the San Francisco Weekly, 1893 to 1897, 135. San Francisco: Westgate Press, 1931, republished 1972.

Oberdeck, Kathryn J. "Contested Cultures of American Refinement: Theatrical Manager Sylvester Poli, His Audiences, and the Vaudeville Industry, 1890-1920." Radical History Review 66(1996):40-91.

"The Orpheum Theatre." http://www.laorpheum.com (accessed January 31, 2005).

"Orpheum Theatre, Los Angeles, California." Theatre Historical Society Annual (no. 32, 2005).

"Palace Theater." http://www.palacetheaternew york.com (accessed February 6, 2005).

"Palace Theatre, Columbus, OH." http://www.capa.com/venues/palace.html (accessed March 12, 2005).

"Palace Theatre, Columbus, OH." http://www.cinematreasures.org./theater/210 (accessed March 12, 2005).

Patterson, Ada. "Two Carriers Are Every Man's Right." National Magazine (March 1925):372.

"Photo Record of the Poli Empire." Marquee 11(Spring 1979): 19-28.

Purdy, Nina. "You've Got to Have Nerve." Everybody's 53(November 1925):37-40.

Robinson, Jack. "Brooklyn's Magnificent Ruin: The Bushwick." Marquee 18(Winter 1986):22-23.

--------------. "8 Big Acts---A Glance Backwards." Marquee 9(Winter 1977):3-10.

--------------. "Fourteenth Street, Cradle of American Vaudeville." Marquee 15(First Quarter 1983):19-20.

--------------. "A Stroll Through Harlem." Marquee 13(Summer 1981):10-12.

Rodecape, Lois Foster. "Tom Maguire, Napoleon of the Stage." California Historical Society Quarterly 20(1941):289-314; 21(1942):39-74, 141-82, 239-75.

"Roof Gardens Open the Summer Season." Theatre Magazine 53(July 1905):158-59.

Royle, Edwin Milton. "The Vaudeville Theatre." Scribner's Magazine 26(October 1899):485-95.

Rutherford, Louis. "`Managers in a Small Way': The Professionalization of Variety Artistes, 1860-1914." In Music Hall: The Business of Pleasure, edited by Peter Bailey. Milton Keynes, England: Open University Press, 1986.

Saloutos, Theodore. "Theatre Magnate of the West." Pacific Northwest Quarterly 57, no. 4:137-47.

"Saranac Village at Will Rogers."http://saranacvillge.com/history.shtlm.

Singer, Stan. "The Orpheum Theater of Los Angeles." Southern California Quarterly 72, no. 4(1990):339-72.

------------. "Vaudeville in Los Angeles, 1910-1926: Theaters, Management, and the Orpheum." Pacific Historical Review 61(November 1992):103-13.

"`Small Time' King." Theatre (March 1914):140.

Snyder, Robert W. "Big-time, Small-time, All Around the Town: New York Vaudeville in the Early Twentieth Century." In For Fun and Profit: The Transformation of Leisure into Consumption, edited by Richard Butsch, 126-27. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999.

"Special Anniversary Issue: the Roxy Theatre." Marquee 11 (Winter 1979):1-28.

"Special Keith Memorial Theatre Issue." Marquee 15(Spring 1983).

Spitzer, Marian. "Morals in the Two-a-Day." American Mercury 3 (September 1924):38.

"Suzanne Théodore Vaillande Douvillier." In Notable American Women, 1607-1950, A Biographical Dictionary, edited by Edward T. James, 1:513-14. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971.

"Suzanne Théodore Vaillande Douvillier." "Women in American History" by Encylopaedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com/women/articles/Douvillier Suzanne Theodore Vaillande.html (accessed February 7, 2005).

Todd, Robert B. "The Organization of Professional Theatre in Vancouver, 1886--1914." BC Studies 44(Winter 1979--80): 3-24.

"W.C. Fields." http://www.wcfields.com

"William Morris Agency." http://www.wma.com/0/agency/history/ (accessed November 22, 2004).

Williams, Percy G. "Vaudeville and Vaudevillians." In The Saturday Evening Post Reflections of a Decade, 1901--1910, 45-47. Indianapolis: Curtis Publishing, 1980.

Woods, Leigh. "`The Golden Calf': Noted English Actresses in American Vaudeville, 1904-1916." Journal of American Culture 15(Fall 1992):61-71.

------------. "Sarah Bernhardt and the Refining of American Vaudeville." Theatre Research International 18(Spring 1993):16-24.

------------. "Two-a-day Redemptions and Truncated Camilles: the Vaudeville Repertoire of Sarah Bernhardt." New Theatre Quarterly 9(February 1994):11-23.

Zellers, Parker. "The Cradle of Variety: The Concert Saloon." Educational Theatre Journal 20(December 1968):578-85.

Dissertations and Master's Theses

Blackwood, Byrne David. "The Theatres of J. B. McElfatrick and Sons, Architects, 1855-1922." PhD diss., University of Kansas, 1966.

Carroll, John F. "Oscar Hammerstein I, 1895-1915: His Creation and Development of New York's Times Square Theatre District." PhD diss., City University of New York, 1998.

Colley, Thomas. "A Historical Study of the White Rats of America." Master's thesis, Wayne State University, 1967.

Connors, Timothy D. "American Vaudeville Managers: Their Organization and Influence." PhD diss., University of Kansas, 1981.

Distler, Paul. "The Rise and Fall of the Racial Comics in American Vaudeville." PhD diss., Tulane University, 1963.

Francisco, Harry Cameron. "The White Rats Versus the Czars of Vaudeville." Master's thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 1971.

Harris, Lowell Stewart. "Variety and Vaudeville: Sime Silverman's Influence on the Organization of Vaudeville." Master's thesis, University of South Florida, 1994.

Herget, Danielle. "The Vaudeville Wars: William Morris, E. F. Albee, the White Rats, and the Business of Entertainment." Ph.D. diss., Tufts University, 2004.

Jewell, Richard Brownell. "A History of RKO Radio Pictures, Incorporated, 1928--1942." PhD diss., University of Southern California, 1978.

Kibler, M. Alison. "Female Varieties: Gender and Cultural Hierarchy on the Keith Vaudeville Circuit, 1890-1925." PhD diss., University of Iowa, 1994.

Knapp, Margaret May. "A Historical Study of the Legitimate Playhouses on West Forty-Second Street between Seventh and Eighth Avenues in New York City." PhD diss., City University of New York, 1982.

Mickols, Robert Anthony. "The Boss of the Bowery: The Life and Times of Big Tim Sullivan." PhD diss., University of California, Santa Barbara, 1957.

Singer, Stanford P. "Vaudeville West: To Los Angeles and the Final Stages of Vaudeville." PhD diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1987.

Snyder, Frederick Edward, "American Vaudeville---Theatre in a Package: The Origins of Mass Entertainment." PhD diss., Yale University, 1970.

Westerfield, Jane. "An Investigation of the Life Styles and Performance of Three Singer-Comediennes of American Vaudeville: Eva Tanguay, Nora Bayes, and Sophie Tucker." DA diss., Ball State University, 1987.